ASTYAGES AND CAMBYSES: MEDIAN AND PERSIAN SOURCES OF CYRUS’ THE GREAT KINGSHIP
Sapogov Aleksandr Sergeevich National Research Saratov State University
Abstract. The article is devoted to the images of Astyages and Cambyses in Xenophon’s "Cyropaedia". The author shows Astyages’ and Cambyses’ influence on Cyrus and their role in his education. In Media the young prince received skills in riding, obedience, as well as in hunting. Skills in hunting helped Cyrus when he took part in the war with the Assyrians, who had attacked Media. Cambyses taught his son the skills of fortune-telling, war tactics and ruling over people. At the end of his narrating Cambyses gave the prince pieces of advice about relations between the king and the Persians. According to "Cyropaedia" Cyrus took the best things from his father and grandfather. The prince received practical skills from Astyages and theoretical ones - from Cambyses. In contrast to his father and grandfather Cyrus overstepped the borders of his motherland and created a new type of the state, which was different from Persia as well as from Media. Xenophon’s attitude to the persons of both Astyages and Cambyses is positive. Nevertheless the attitude to Astyages’ kingship is negative contrary to the one of Cambyses and Cyrus.
Key words and phrases: Àñòèàã, Êàìáèç, Êèð Âåëèêèé, Êñåíîôîíò, "Êèðîïåäèÿ", öàðñêàÿ âëàñòü, Äðåâíèé Èðàí, Astyages, Cambyses, Cyrus the Great, Xenophon, "Cyropaedia", kingship, Ancient Iran.
Open the whole article in PDF format. Free PDF-files viewer can be downloaded here.
Aristotel'. Sobranie sochinenii: v 4-kh t. M.: Mysl', 1984. T. 4. 830 s.
Benvenist E. Slovar' indoevropeiskikh sotsial'nykh terminov. M.: Progress-Univers, 1995. 456 c.
Gerodot. Istoriya: v 9-ti kn. / per. i prim. G. A. Stratonovskogo. L.: Nauka (Leningradskoe otdelenie), 1972. 600 s.
Zaitsev A. I. Drevnegrecheskii geroicheskii epos i "Iliada" Gomera // Gomer. Iliada. M.: Nauka, 1990. S. 395-416.
Ksenofont. Anabasis. Grecheskaya istoriya. M.: AST; Astrel', 2011. 638 c.
Ksenofont. Kiropediya / izd. podg. V. G. Borukhovich i E. D. Frolov. M.: Nauka, 1976. 347 c.
Steblin-Kamenskii M. I. Mir sagi. Stanovlenie literatury. L.: Nauka (Leningradskoe otdelenie), 1984. 284 s.
Struve V. V. Gerodot i politicheskie techeniya v Persii v epokhu Dariya I // Vestnik drevnei istorii. 1948. ¹ 3. S. 12-35.
Georges P. Barbarian Asia and the Greek Experience: from the Archaic Period to the Age of Xenophon. Baltimore - L.: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1994. KhKh+358 r.
Gera D. Xenophon’s Cyropaedia: Style, Genre and Literature Technique. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1993. XII+348 p.
Gray V. Xenophon // Narrators, Narratees and Narratives in Ancient Greek Literature. Leiden: Brill, 2004. P. 391-401.
Hirsch S. The Friendship of the Barbarians: Xenophon and the Persian Empire. Hanover - L.: University Press of New England, 1985. XVI+216 p.
Tuplin C. Xenophon’s Cyropaedia: Fictive History, Political Analysis and Thinking with Iranian Kings // Every Inch a King: Comparative Studies on King and Kingship in the Ancient and Medieval Worlds / ed. by L. Mitchell, C. Melville. Leiden - Boston: Brill, 2013. P. 67-90.