Abstract. The article analyzes the features of the organization and functioning of the school network in Kazan during the first post-revolutionary years (1918-1920). The implementation of one of the key principles of the Decree of the All-Russian Central Executive Committee of the RSFSR "On a Unified Labour School" on the compulsory education is considered. On the basis of archival documents, the selection process and the composition of pupils of the Russian city schools of the I level are studied, the reasons for sifting out of pupils, including the influence of social and economic factors, are revealed.
Key words and phrases: Народный комиссариат просвещения, единая трудовая школа, г. Казань, многонациональный состав населения, русские городские школы I ступени, контингент учащихся, анкетирование, статистика, People’s Commissariat of Education, unified labour school, Kazan, multinational composition of population, Russian city schools of I level, contingent of pupils, questioning, statistics