MONGOLIAN EMCHI-LAMAS: FROM TRADITIONAL THERAPY TO EUROPEAN MEDICINE (THE 1920-1930S)
Miyagasheva Surzhana Borisovna Institute for Mongolian, Buddhist and Tibetan Studies of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences
Abstract. The article analyses the state of Tibetan medicine in Mongolia at the beginning of the XX century, examines the early stages of its interaction with European medicine. The paper reveals poorly investigated aspects in the history of traditional Mongolian medicine: attempts of emchi-lamas to adopt European principles of healthcare. It is shown that a small group of the Buddhist clergy tried to establish fruitful cooperation and to adopt the experience of Soviet physicians. The author shows that in the 1920-1930s, the Mongolian government encouraged emchi-lamas to participate in solving the national healthcare problems. For that purpose, medical courses were organized for lamas and healers and traditional medicine dispensaries were opened at Buddhist monasteries.
Key words and phrases: история здравоохранения, тибетская медицина, советская медицина, кочевые народы, Монголия, санитарный надзор, социальные болезни, history of healthcare system, Tibet medicine, Soviet medicine, nomadic people, Mongolia, sanitary inspection, social diseases.
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